Transformation Through Travel

Amanda Blue
Music 227
Assignment, Chapter 5

This is a very technical chapter, and so the purpose of this handout is to help reinforce the major points.

1) a. In what treatise was polyphony first described?
Polyphony was first described in the ninth-century treatises Musica enchiriadis and Scolica enchiriaadis.

b. About when was this treatise written?
This treatise was written in the ninth century.

2) a. In “Alleluia Justus ut palma” from c.1100 (NAWM 15), some sections are not set in polyphony. Why not?

The sections that were not written in polyphony were made to be the solo sections of the chant. This was known as free organum. This allowed the soloist to have a free vocal line above the chant line sung by the choir. These would be the sections of the mass that were known as the Gradual, Alleluias, and the responsorial psalms. These sections allowed for the singer to be featured as a soloist through historical context and meaning.

b. What type of polyphony is in this excerpt?
This excerpt was known as free organum.

3) a. In florid organum, which voice has the chant?
In florid organum, the tenor voice part has the chant.

b. What is this voice called?
The voice part is called tenor.

c. Why did it receive the name?
The voice part “tenor” received its name from the Latin word meaning “to hold”. In this case, the tenor part “holds” the melody of the chant.

4) a. For which chants of the Mass and Office did Leonin write organa?
The chants of the mass and office that Leonin wrote organa for were the Graduals, Alleluias, and the Office Responsorial.

b. Of these chants, which portions did he set in polyphony?
The gradual for Christmas Day was a piece and style of chant that he set in polyphony.

c. What was his collection of organa called?
Leonin’s collection of organa is called Magnus liber organi.

5) a. According to the writings of “Anonymous IV,” at what type of composition was Leonin best?
“Anonymous IV” called Leonin a master and excellent organista, which means a composer of organum.

b. For what was Perotin noted?
Perotin was noted for his, “quadrupla” which was four-voice organa.

6) a. What is a clausula?
A clausula is a phrase within a sentence. When referring to organa, a clausula “sets a word or a syllable from the chant and closes with a cadence (pg.98)”.

b. What is a substitute clausula?
A substitute clausula is a transposed section added or in the place of an already existing chant.

7) The setting of “Viderunt omnes” in NAWM 17 includes sections in both florid organum and discant. What are the main features of each style?

Florid organum: This style occurs when “ the upper voice sings note groups of varying lengths above each note of the lower voice, which moves much more slowly than the upper part (pg.89).”

Discant: This style occurs when “both parts move at the same rate, with one to three notes in the upper part of each note for each note of the lower voice (pg.89).”

8) a. Why did Leonin switch between florid organum and discant?
Leonin switched between florid organum and discant because he thought that it would be easier to memorize and would become more memorable. He did this by creating rhythmic modes. This concept was also used to highlight the more important parts of the chant and text presented in the mass. Symbolically, this had great effect.

b. Why did he use discant in these passages?
He used discant in these passages to allow for musical dynamic to his compositions. These passages were created to be more memorable and give a different sound to the ear of the listener.

9) a. In the discant clausula on the word “dominus” (NAWM 18), which rhythmic mode or modes predominate in the upper voice? In the lower voice?
The rhythmic modes predominate in the upper voice are

10) In what ways is “Ave virgo virginum” (NAWM 20) typical of the polyphonic conductus?

11) How did the motet originate, and how did it acquire its name?

*12) How do you think an intermediate ensemble (vocal or instrumental) could benefit technically from performing early polyphony? Be specific as to what you could ask the musicians do.



This blog couldn’t be created without the help of my wonderful journal that was created and well updated while on the trip. Even though it is a requirement of the class, I will always live through the trip again through my own words. Ok, now on to the first destination of the trip; Berlin! Berlin was such an amazing city, and the perfect city to start off in. It was the most like the United States. Its architecture was modern with hints of history and age within its character. I was fascinated by the differences between Western and Eastern Germany. Both had extremely different characters that created its own dynamic. The Eastern Germany side still had traces of Communism within its architecture and  layout. It was like I was walking back in time when I was on this side of Germany into a time where color and creativity did not exist. The Western Germany side had a lot more romantic and classical architecture. There, I was able to find more of a history within German traditional culture. I was amazed by the differences between the two “sides” in today’s times. It must of had more of a distinct difference back when Germany was divided. This was my first experience of actually stepping out of the history book and on the actual sites of history.

My favorite academic experience would have to be our visit to the Charlottenburg Palace. It was unlike anything that I have ever seen before. I had never been to a palace before, but I have always been interested in their history and their function in society. We were able to tour the palace at our own pace with the use of tour guided headsets. Each room was magnificent! The artwork that resided within each room was unbelievable. The detail was so important during that time when they were creating the palace, and mist if it shows. Even though it wasn’t in Paris, it reminded me of the movie Marie Antoinette. The beauty was endless in the palace walls. One of my favorite activities was attending the Berlin Philharmonic concert. We got seats right behind the percussion section. It truly was a night that I will never forget. As a music major, I was in awe of the music and talent that surrounded me that night. What a magical evening.

For a restaurant, I would have to recommend the Prater Garten. The group went their for our last meal in Berlin. The food provided was traditional German cuisine. This was some of the best food on the trip, in my opinion! 




The site of the gas chambers at Birkenau II in Poland

The site of the gas chambers at Birkenau II in Poland are an example of landscape and memory. There are five crematoriams and two bunkers where Jewish people were murdered during the Holocaust.The first crematorium was built in 1940 and lasted until 1943. The others were built in the times between then. There were also gas chambers that were built inside of these buildings where the Nazis took the lives of millions of people. The landscape is to help preserve the memory of what had happen. The fact that they have done very little to rebuild these places because they are still standing serves as the memory of the landscape. Today, there are signs up that preserve the memory of the events that took place there along with the actual buildings in which these horrific events took place. These are to be reminders and represent memories of everyone who lost their life in these places. I chose to write about this topic because I had never really researched this in depth before. It is one of the most heartbreaking topics that I have ever researched before. The picture along with this post shows an example of the layout of the landscape of the gas chambers at Birkenau.




Auschwitz-Birkenau II

Birkenau was one of the largest concentration camps that was apart of Auschwitz. Over 1 million people died in Birkenau. In March 1942, Birkenau oped as apart of Auschwitz. A quote taken off of the foundations’ web site states:

“If one Place could address the conscience of humanity in the 21st century, this Place is Auschwitz-Birkenau. The last of the enormous extermination centers which is tangibly preserved. The largest of all the Nazi German concentration camps.

If the world we would like to build is to be safer, peaceful and more welcoming, it is imperative that we keep the authenticity of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial viable and palpable.

No one can change the past; however the future is in our hands. Help us to preserve the authenticity of Auschwitz-Birkenau. Help us to warn humanity against itself. Do not allow history to become a deafening silence. Save the memory.”

Dr. Piotr M.A. Cywiński

President of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation

This statements speaks to the importance of keeping this place as a reminder to never let an event like the Holocaust happen again. This concentration camp is located in Krakow, Poland. Even before I got accepted into this program, I saw that one of the places that were to be visited would be Auschwitz. I knew that if I went on the trip that this would be one of the most powerful places that we would have visited. Its memory and power still resonate till this very day.



Istvan Szechenyi was born into a very wealthy and aristocratic family. His family gained many merits from the “Hungarian National Museum.”He participated in the uprising against Napoleon in early 1800, along with is two brothers. This sparked his further participation in the Military, not only as a duty but a career. He received many badges […]

The Wachau Valley vineyards & Gasometer City


The Wachau Valley vineyards are worldly renowned for their wines. The vineyard is located in Austria among the lush greenery and breathtaking mountain views. It is along the Danube river. The valley is a World Heritage Site due to its beauty and the need to preserve its grounds. The types of grapes that are grown in the Wachau Valley vineyards are Grüner Veltliner and Riesling grapes. The vineyard was created in the mid-1980s where the production of white wines grew immensely. I am very excited to witness the beauty that this valley holds and bike along the Danube river. The beauty is endless in an area like this.

Gasometer City is the site in which industrial buildings that housed pants for gas and other materials during the 1900s populated a part of Vienna. Now, these buildings are now eco friendly apartments, malls, studios, and many other occupations. They are labeled A, B, C, and D for various purposes that were used back in the day. Cafe’s reside in some of them as well as local entertainment venues and  restaurants. This is a perfect example of modern architecture within renovations of old buildings in Europe. Their ability to create new designs and eco friendly space in older buildings continue to astound me! I am very excited to visit this new concept of an old space.


Museum of Romani Culture in Brno

The Museum of Romani Culture is located in Brno, Czech Republic. It holds many exhibitions on Romani culture form the past and into the present. According to their website: “We are a space where different cultures meet. We preserve examples of Romani cultural history as part of Europe´s heritage. We educate the younger generation to […]

The Charles Bridge

The Charles Bridge in Prague is the oldest bridge in the city. The bridge connects the Old Town to Mala Strana. Outlining the bridge are 30 statues of saints and other important people in which they have contributed to the history of Prague in a positive way. The bridge was previously named the stone bridge. Then it was named the Charles Bridge after King Charles IV had claimed it. Its architecture is known to be one of the best examples of Gothic design. With its Gothic design, it is one of the most beautiful sights in Prague, let alone in Central Europe. The towers that are present at the ends of the two sides of the bridges, also represent Gothic architecture. On more modern days, the bridge holds a warm welcome to many tourists, visitors, musicians, and artists. A lot of musicians bring their bands on the bridge to preform for the people who pass by. There are also a lot of painters along the bridge offering to paint picture of tourists or are painting for their own pleasure and for their own work. I am very excited to visit such a beautiful scenic place. It is home to the most beautiful art and has countless historical influences and memories.


The Bach Museum


The Bach museum is located in Leipzig, Germany. The museum is located in the Bose House, where Bach visited. He was good friends with the Bose family, and lived right across the street with his family. Unfortunately, his original house was destroyed in the early 1900s. The architecture is very much in the style of 16th century architecture. At first, the museum was located in a palace in Leipzig, but due to renovations, it was moved to the Bose Family house. The museum holds some of Bach’s original music as well as some original art and sculptures dating back to the time where Bach lived. There are also places in which the original wallpaper of the hose is still displayed. In the museum, there is also a reconstructed version of Bach’s signature instrument, which is the organ. The museum also has a listening library, where visitors can listen to Bach’s most loved pieces and follow along with the score in hand. Being a music major, I am very excited to visit where Bach spent his time and visited. He is one of the composers that I am more unfamiliar with; so being able to visit this museum will be a real treat and a wonderful educational experience.


The Jewish Museum


The Jewish Museum of Berlin opened in the year 2001. The museum dedicates its knowledge and its focus to the Jewish people during the Holocaust and to their culture today. It is an independent federal institution. The building was constructed and designed by Daniel Libeskind. The structure of this museum ties in modern architecture with classical elements that is developed in to the modern design. This museum is respected greatly within Central Europe. The museum holds many memorabilia, paintings, and other forms of art to represent the Jewish Culture. Its unique exterior is made to catch the eyes of people who come across it. I am very excited to visit such a respected museum and learn more about the Jewish Culture within Germany during World War II and in the present. In America, rarely do you find this type of architecture; so just being able to see this modern design will be interesting to experience. I am most interested in seeing the old photographs and art that document the lives of those before, during, and after the Holocaust. Photographs became apart of the museum’s display in 2006. They show the social lives of Jewish culture in the times around 1945 and older.,_Berlin